It looks like 2011 will be another year without a cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) for Social Security recipients. Why? Because consumer prices haven’t yet returned to the peak they reached in the third quarter of 2008, when the 2009 COLA was set.
Beneficiaries received a healthy 5.8% boost in their payments in 2009, which made sense after the sharp run-up in energy prices in 2008. But then energy prices collapsed. The inflation rate used to calculate the COLA was negative from 2008 to 2009. The cold logic of cost-of-living adjustments would thus have implied a reduction in Social Security benefits in 2010. For understandable reasons, however, Social Security doesn’t allow negative COLAs. So benefits remained flat, and 2010 went into the record books as the year without a COLA.
The same thing will happen in 2011. Consumer prices have increased since the third quarter of 2009, but as of the August CPI report, they still fell far short of the peak reached back in 2008. Barring a miraculous surge in inflation in September, that means that 2011 will be the second year without a COLA.
The Social Security Administration will make its official no-COLA announcement on October 15, just a few weeks before the mid-term elections. If last year is any guide, that announcement will set off a flurry of debate about whether Social Security recipients should receive a special benefit adjustment above that implied by the COLA formula (or, in this case, the unCOLA formula) and whether such special payments might be desirable as a form of economic stimulus.
If you are interested in all the facts surrounding the COLA calculation, the incomparable Calculated Risk has a wonderfully detailed analysis.
37 thoughts on “Another Year Without a Social Security COLA”
I might be somewhat more sympathetic to the financial plight of SS recipients, except that I haven’t had a raise (longevity, merit, cost-of-living or otherwise) in 2009 or 2010 and I don’t foresee one coming for 2011.
I am still grossing what I did in 2008, yet my health insurance premium cost has doubled, and I am contributing the maximum to my HSA, so my put-in-my-pocket net has decreased. I forewent 401(k) contributions in 2010 to somewhat balance my increased health insurance costs (insurance, not care, since I haven’t seen a doctor nor bought prescription medication in 2010), but I am essentially at a standstill, income-wise.
COLA is either related to the measured cost-of-living, or it’s a camouflaged stimulus – and we’ve already seen the ineffectiveness of “one time” stimulus payments.
On the other hand, I am not trying to live on .5% interest earnings on savings either. And I have a job. Which is better than the alternative….
Be thankful you are healthy and can work….how about you giving directly to someone that can’t. Buy them some groceries. I bet you won’t give anyone less fortunate than you a nickel.
WHAT A WONDERFUL THOUGHT. THANKFULLY, I LIVE ON SOCIAL SECURITY ALONE AND CAN STILL HELP WITH SOME FOOD AND CLOTHING FOR THE LESS FORTUNATE. I TRY TO BE A LITTLE FRUGAL SO I CAN DO THAT. THANK YOU FOR A DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVE.
another year with cost of liveing adjustmentit wiil hurt me too keep up with my bills and expences.
the war over seas cost billions and people who work alltere lifes and pind into the socaikl security fund we is the funds who pocket the money.
To begin with, the Cost of Living Index which determines whether Seniors will receive a necessary adjustment in their income just to barely keep up with inflation, does not accurately reflect debt incurred by the demographic it is slated for. For example, Cost of Living Index is concerned with the price of cars, trips, and purchases made by families. It is not concerned with increases in rent stabilized apartments, which constitute housing for many people living on SSI. Nor does it consider the added costs of ever increasing prescription drugs, doctor and hospital visits or laboratory work. Transportation costs are likewise forlorn. Indeed, the Cost of Living Index has nothing to do regarding the cost of living for seniors and disabled Americans living on a fixed income who watch their medical bills, rent, food and transportation skyrocket. Sure, if they were going to buy a fur coat, take a trip to Europe or invest in a new luxury car, the COLI is right in line. But this is not realistic or reasonable when concerning individuals who fall at the lower socioeconomic index, stratified socially and economically because of their age or pre-existing condition.
It’s a shame that in a Country like America, billions upon billions of dollars are shifted into the hands of elite corporatists in the form of bail outs. Corporate welfare outstrips desperately needed social services in this country as does our unmitigated desire to spend until there is no tomorrow on needless wars. Corporations don’t even pay taxes, and the wealthiest individuals continue to get tax breaks instead of a progressive tax which is placed on every one else. Yet people who worked to build this country, who contributed to the system who merely want what is rightfully theirs, a mere pittance, are systematically ignored by greedy and selfish bureaucrats to line their own coffer by manipulating and exploiting the system, who were promised that SSI would be there for them in retirement are now given an empty hand because elitist, corporatists, greedy politicians, and lying war mongers have stolen from them. Welcome to America. No COLI for 2011 represents the second year that fragile and unstable seniors and disabled people must do more with less. Must eat less, must not buy all their prescriptions, must turn the thermostat down and literally freeze while some fat cat sits on a private tropical beach before boarding his private jet back to New York where he can snuggle in his nice oversized bed before eating a full meal.
SHAME ON AMERICA. SHAME ONTHE POLITICIANS. SHAME ONT THE PRESIDENT FOR NOT DOING ANYTHING. THESE PEOPLE ARE SUFFERING AND DYING, AND NO ONE CARES. THEY ARE YOUR PARENTS, YOUR AUNTS, YOUR UNCLES, YOUR DISABLED CHILDREN. YOUR FILTHY GREED IS KILLING US ALL!
Thank You, Chris. You said it all for me and I thought I would have a nice early retirement at age 62 after working for 36 years. What a fool I was and still am.
I’ll let my electric co, phone co, cable co., grocery store and health insurance know ( yes, I still pay secondary) plus I’m sure Medicare will go up.
It is a shame that the older people as usual are forgotten
citizens,senators and congresman have no idea how
the elderly make ends meet,nor do these people care.
A proposal to give the elderly a stimulous check for 2010
was voted down.
Tell those people to come to cities like San Diego,look at
the homeless people on the streets.
This will happen to the elderly,I say shame on Senators
the congress and to those officials who voted for no
Amen hank; you said it all very well
what a shame no cost of living increase, s/s idioits that make these shameful decisions obliviously don’t do their own grocery shopping. Every week basics go up. Two years without a raise. $15 extra dollars for my husband and I means a lot.
I did not intend by any design to become disabled and need to collect SSDI benefits before turning 38yrs old. Yet I did pay taxes when I was working, and never once complained about COLA increases to those who were receiving SS/SSI/SSDI benefits.
My savings were quickly depleted by medical costs, and I lost my home to foreclosure. I did not plan for being incapable to work another 30 to 40 yrs, nor do most people.
I am now living on much less (approximately 1/3 of my past salary when bonuses and overtime are calculated) than what I made prior to becoming disabled. My landlord raises my rent every year, according to the CPI as permitted by the rent control laws in my city. He does not care that the rent increase of $39 dollars a month for 2010 is not offset in an increase in my SSDI benefits.
California increased automobile registration, yet took away the added cost of living benefits contributed by the state to my SSDI, as well as the Renters/Homeowners Rebate for Seniors and Disabled Individuals at a maximum of $334 a year. Now I can not afford to register my 1997 VW (which I need to go to necessary doctor appointments) which I used the rebate for, and taking the bus costs me more that putting gas in my car for the necessary trips did. Not to mention that taking the bus takes 4 times longer to reach my destination, requires transferring to 2 different city bus lines, and leaves me in debilitating pain. So much so, that I can not take my service dog for her necessary walks to relieve herself for days following a doctors appointment. This means I have to hire somebody to walk her. I still have to pay the rent increase, but I must find a way to do so. Which means I will go without necessary medications, food, utilities or something else essential to living.
I go to food banks to get food, but because of food allergies or medical related food restrictions, I can not use 75% of what I receive. I give those items to the homeless or leave them at the food banks. My service dog gets her annual shots and check up through a non profit, HOPE. But what happens should she become ill and require emergency vet care when their monthly clinic isn’t that day. This occurred when my old service dog had a massive stroke. I had to sit with my paralyzed service dog for 10 hours while I waited for my sister and best friend to get off work to help carry her to the car. I spent my rent money for her to be examined, and then be euthanized. I have yet to recover financially for that occurring this past February.
I am not one of those individuals fortunate enough to not require a COLA increase in our benefits, nor are a majority of those receiving benefits fortunate enough to not need them. We are not driving brand new cars; shopping at even Goodwill or Salvation Army for clothing or shoes requires going without something essential. I can not afford to get dental care (another thing that was discontinued for low income disabled persons/seniors in the state of California) and need a root canal and a canine tooth cavity filled (which is getting larger). I may lose these two teeth due to medication related dental problems because I can not find the funds to pay to have them repaired and the waiting lists at UCLA and USC Dental Schools are taking years. I am now 45 years old, and may have to have all my teeth pulled, and get dentures because those are the only benefits I can immediately receive for my teeth. And receiving dentures may be a pipe dream, as I am not sure if I can get assistance to pay for them. But I know the state will pull the teeth! I guess I don’t need them to eat anyway, right? And the hell with any vanity because who am I trying to impress when I smile anyway?
I can not afford something as simple as a haircut, let alone feminine hygiene products! I wash laundry by hand with bar soap purchased at the 99 cents store. I try to grow vegetables but now my landlord wants the tenants to remove any potted plants from our porches.
I am thankful that I was working when my mother was diagnosed with terminal cancer, because the laws that were in effect to receive SSI benefits required that she be disabled for 6 months prior to being able to receive benefits. She died 6 months and 5 days after her diagnosis! I paid for her chemotherapy, radiation and related cancer treatments and necessary pain medications. I was never reimbursed by SSI for these expenditures, and they depleted my savings substantially. I was 25 yrs old, and I was barely making a decent living at the time.
I am thankful that when my grandmother later became ill, and required help to pay her bills because her Social Security benefits weren’t enough, that we had a few family heirlooms/antiques to liquidate to help cover the costs. Yet, I also found myself shelling out more of my 401K savings to cover what selling those things could not.
I can honestly say that I am grateful for any assistance a legitimate non profit agency extends to me. Yet in the current economy, those agencies are not receiving the donations they need in order to assist those who need them.
I personally can not afford another year without a COLA increase or a Stimulus Rebate. I don’t know how I am going to afford to pay my bills next month, let alone get through another year in the negative. I can’t afford to move, I haven’t gone out with friends in over a year because I can’t afford to have a cup of coffee. Holidays I try to make gifts, but year I can’t afford to do even that. I must use the computer of a neighbor to go online for any reason because internet is too expensive and my 8yr old computer just “died”. Television use to be free, but not requires a digital converter box which I can not afford, as the one I did obtain broke. Going to the library to borrow a book requires 2 buses each way, and I can’t afford the “treat”.
I am considering giving up, what’s the use of living in constant pain daily, and fighting to afford the bare minimum to reside in a country who can do this to their poor, elderly and disabled??
I think it is communism not to give us elderly a cost of living raise. You tell us because the cost hasn’t went up. Do you really think we are a bunch of idiots??????? Everything has went up, with no cost of living I will not be able to stay in my home any longer. I hope this makes our great senators and congressmen, and all the other people happy when the elderly can’t eat healthy, keep the heat down because we can’t afford the fuel and the electric has went sky high.
Maybe some people can get help for fuel and other bills, I can’t. I get a small sum of food stamps. I think everyone who works for the government should not receive any pay this year, I don’t mean a raise, I mean any pay. They have banked enough to get them through. One of their parties alone if more than I get for 10 years, enough is enough. I am ready to leave this country. What happened to America???
A very long comment… sorry but I needed to rant and I think your blog is perfect for it. I hope some government official reads this blog and the comments.
I told my friend that if rent and electric bill goes higher than what I get on SSI (I’m disabled, unable to work at all) or medicaid gets cut and I lose my meds (I have intractable epilepsy in addition to my disability) that I would do something that would land me in a mental hospital or barring that, even prison because I cannot go without my medication for at least my seizures and for insomnia. Missing JUST two doses is enough to trigger a massive seizure.
I barely can even go through the entire month with food. Not eating also is a trigger for a massive seizure. I was in the hospital for 3 days a few weeks ago because of that.
I agree with Leola and M.Monroe – what’s happened to America? Other countries RESPECT their elderly, the disabled. Other countries have better health systems and it costs them much less than our ineffective and greedy health system.
I have respect for my doctors, but I don’t have any respect for insurance.
Just two months ago, I had to have a tooth pulled instead of being fixed. I can’t get the cavities fixed. And the teeth with the cavities will break and I’ll lose those teeth as well. I’m only 34. I shouldn’t even be losing my teeth yet. But I am, because Medicaid will only pay for EMERGENCY dental work on adults.
Emergency work costs far more than preventive care, in all cases. I can’t pay for preventive care. When I have a seizure, I bite down very hard – that’s what caused my molar to break in half. The filling in that tooth had loosened because of all the seizures.
I ask again: why is the health system in America willing to only pay for emergency care? If they paid for preventive care, I’d be willing to bet the system would be a lot less costly because there’d be less deaths, less emergency problems that cause the ER to use expensive machines.
I’m a college grad who has never worked after college because of my epilepsy which developed not long before I graduated. I’ve used up all the deferment allowed, I’m almost at the maximum allowed for forbearance. I’m going to be defaulting on the student loans. All because I can’t even pay anything. I’d offer to pay one cent per month, but that’s stupid because, it’d cost the loan company to process that, etc etc – and there’s interest piling up. So yeah, stupid.
I see government officials getting pay raises, because that was written into the law that they must get raises regardless of COLA.
I’m living so far below the poverty line that I’m amazed that I’m still alive.
Like Lorna – electricity has gone sky high because of the heat (I couldn’t pay it for 2 months, I’m afraid I’m going to lose the power in the next few weeks). Can’t ask for assistance because… you have to have bills not be past due.
I feel like I’m Jane in that movie, “Fun with Dick and Jane”. I feel like I’m going to have to run through somebody’s sprinkler to get clean. Use candles for light and cooking.
Oh wait… the apt complex pays water, so I can at least have cold showers at the very least.
I don’t have a support system here where I live – I can’t go to a help place to get food to supplement my meager amount of food stamps: it costs to use the bus, not to mention, they’re always out of food whenever I try. So yeah.
I can’t even afford to move. I’m extremely lucky to be living where I am, actually.
I have nothing left that I can sell – nobody is going to want my computer anyway, it’s too old for them.
People need to realize that what is considered “poverty line” – man, if I was AT that line, I’d consider myself rich. That’s how poor I am.
I dare any government official to try to live on the same amount that I live on, with the same amount of bills for 3 months. I bet you they wouldn’t make it through 2 weeks before crying uncle.
I agree that if the index shows no COLA is forthcoming, one should not be provided. I do not believe a special COLA increse would be a good thing in the long run. Once Congress permits SSA to alter the rules, a precedent will will be set for the future. this could permit Congress to raise, lower, and withhold COLAs in the futrue, without considering the cost of living formula. As an SS recipient, I think its time to just budget better in 2011!
thats a great idea be sure to try the cat
food at the dollar store other senoirs find the fishy flavor a real winner.,
This stinks !!!! My rent, electric, cable, copays for doctors and medicine, plus medicare premiums and food continue to rise. Each year I become less able to live. I receive no extra benefits from the government. Now, I’m at the point of barely surviving. I am becoming so depress that I can’t bare living anymore.
Why do we comtinue to bailout banks, extend unemployment and send billions to countries ( like Haiti ) and can’t help people on disability and retired people, who have faithly paid there taxes.
Boo !!!! Obama
Can’t wait to throw him out of the White House
I think I can speak for all of us that this is a bunch bull! Our goverment can spend billion’s on other things but not there own people. Mr President I am sorry to say you have forgotten your own country. You have your fingers in everything and your not getting anywhere. STOP AND LOOK AROUND YOU! We the people that worked hard for our country are in deep trouble. We are all living on a shoe string check every month. I for one thing it’s a shame that you have forgotten your own people. The goverment is always helping other countries out but we have to sit and wait and THAT’S NOT RIGHT! I know that there are other things that are traded off with all this but as far as I see it you have let us down. The small amount of money social security people and SSI people get are peanuts to what I see are goverment spending so let’s fix this problem. STOP! Look at this program and do the right thing. We need are increases and we need it now more than ever. Thank you for your time and please do the right thing. Sincerely Mike Walsh
COME ON NOW. PRESIDENT OBAMA DOES NOT CONTROL THE COLA. YOU KNOW THAT. PRESIDENT OBAMA IS FOR THE POOR AND MIDDLE CLASS PEOPLE. ITS NOT HIS FAULT THAT OUR USA IS IN SUCH A MESS. THANKS TO BUSHES 8 YEARS THAT GOT US IN THIS MESS. I AM IRRITATED TOO, BUT LETS PUT THE BLAME WHERE IT BELONGS.
tell you want they cant give the people on social security a raise but i am sure senate , congress and the president get their yearly raise , whats the government trying to do kill off the elderly and the poor , how on earth do they expect us too keep going on the crappy amount we get ? i go to the grocery store and i cant belive the price increases from one week too another , utilities keep going up , the cost of food , shelter and gas , and they say that inflation is ok , well they need to take a better look at things and live on the amount of money us poor people do . i have to stop byung and eating foods i like due to inflation , but i am certain the rich people like the president , senate and congress dont give up what they like , they spend what 100 bucks or more on special dinners … this country is no better off then it was a year ago … obama promised us the world to get elected and now we are suffering from that decision .. wake up if it werent for the elderly people in this world half of us wouldnt be here ..
Again, the Obama administration gives themselves a pay raise in Congress and how many Washington staff got pay raises at taxpayer expense, but the population from WWII that saved the world and need funds more than anyone will get $0 cost of living raise. Everything – especially food and gas are more expensive than last year. Even a $5 to $10 a month cost of living raise would save many from making very serious budget decisions. How can this administration live with themselves? The Obama administration is purposely disposing the American way of life, and creating fear and dividing Americans on every issue. How can Obama say he is doing his main job, securing the freedom and liberty of All Americans, when he gets in Air Force 1 just to go and help Democrats to continue their arrogant way of living off the backs of All Americans!!
Yeah Mike lets get a Republican to do the same thing huh?
Increases in energy costs, food prices and medical care keep on coming, yet no COL again. This on top of punishingly low interest rates. Low rates of interest are simply another type of income redistribution when you consider it. They do not harm people who have little cash and they help those who have nothing and are in need of loans. On the other hand, those who do have cash and used to making a respectable amount in interest income now make very little. Democrats are always trying to take money from those who have it and give it to those that don’t. These low rates of interest are just another way they are accomplising that goal. ObamaCare and upcoming cuts in Medicare payments promised by that law will make life even more difficult for the elderly. Get out there and vote on November 2 as an expression of your concerns.
It the same old crap the gov. is ripping us off, I have to give up my home & move in with my son ,because of these people ,they don’t care about us ,only thing they do ,is think of themselves and the big money they make. I was going to vote ,but I don’t know now.Dose it matter? They don’t care about us , why should we care about them!! I risk my life , when I was in the navy . That should mean something!
Put quite simply the united states government sucks.Its ok to bail out all the fat cats,auto companys,wall street,fannie may,and freddie whatever the hell its called.when it comes to the elderly,shove to them first.The stinking government is no better than the run of the mill street punk,pick out the most vulnerable and stick it to them.There is not a politician out there who is honest,if you grease the right palm you get what you want.
The problem is we senior citizens don’t have any representation and the so called representatives are nothing but self serving bunch of no good greedy individuals that don’t give a tinker’s darn about us that have to depend on social security benefits. Throw all these politicians out of office. The can bail out these wall street fat cats but to heck with us. We don’t have any representation what soever. Why can’t we vote to deny these politicians from getting any raise in their pay.
What a dislgusting sham on our entire system of representation.
I THINK IT SUCKS THAT THIS WILL BE THE SECOND YEAR IN A ROW THAT WE DON’T GET A RAISE. I KNOW ALL THE FEDERAL AND STATE EMPLOYEES WILL RECIEVE A RAISE. ARE THEY ANY BETTER THAT US ON SS? I WENT TO THE STORE YESTERDAY AND LOOKED ESPECIALLY AT THE PRODUCTS THAT I ALWAYS BUY AND THE PRICE ON ALL THOSE PRODUCTS HAVE GONE UP ANYWHERE FROM 20 CENTS TO MORE THAN A DOLLAR. SO HOW CAN THEY SAY THAT OUR COSTS HAVN’T GONE UP. MY INSURANCE HAS GONE UP FIFTY EIGHT DOLLARS A MONTH. MY ELECTRICITY HAS RAISED THEIR RATES SEVERAL TIMES IN THE PAST TWO YEARS.; COME ON SENIORS. LETS GET LOUD.
I agree with Bonnie Ponciano; we, as in SS recipients, need to get LOUD!!!!! The government wants to starve us to death so they will not have to make our checks out every month. We need to march in Washington, D.C., those who can; my husband and I can’t hardly walk, but maybe we can show up in a wheelchair or something!!!
WARNING WARNING YOUR SOCIAL SECURITY CHECK COULD BE TAXED AT 1%.
This bill is coming out of committee in November, after the elections. It is HR 4646.
Contact your congressman and senator IMMEDIATELY and urge them to vote against this bill. It is designed to charge you for every single cash, check, credit card, etc. transaction that you make anywhere, including your bank, retail, etc.
Make no Mistake – this is likely to happen. Following is text from the website that publishes these bills:
Debt Free America Act – States as purposes of this Act the raising of sufficient revenue from a fee on transactions to eliminate the national debt within seven years and the phasing out of the individual income tax. Amends the Internal Revenue Code to impose a 1% fee, offset by a corresponding nonrefundable income tax credit, on transactions that use a payment instrument, including any check, cash, credit card, transfer of stock, bonds, or other financial instrument. Defines “transaction” to include retail and wholesale sales, purchases of intermediate goods, and financial and intangible transactions. Establishes in the legislative branch the Bipartisan Task Force for Responsible Fiscal Action to review the fiscal imbalance of the federal government and make recommendations to improve such imbalance. Provides for expedited consideration by Congress of Task Force recommendations. Repeals after 2017 the individual income tax, refundable and nonrefundable personal tax credits, and the alternative minimum tax (AMT) on individuals. Directs the Secretary of the Treasury to: (1) prioritize the repayment of the national debt to protect the fiscal stability of the United States; and (2) study and report to Congress on the implementation of this Act
The big wigs in Washington can get their Big buck raises, regardless of how poor the diabled are. Do they care if we can survive ? HECK NO !!!! , they need the money for their raises. The disable can die out, they DON’t CARE. I am disgusted with you All !!
already sent comment
another year without cost of living increace .thats wrong
the people who are on social security,disablity,iss are
only getting between 300.00-1200per month .there,s no way
they live on that.most of them dont have a place to even
live and not by choosing.IF GOVERMENT CAN BAIL OUT COPERATIONS,THEY CAN TEND TO POOR PEOPLE OF THIS COUNTRY.ALL U HERE ON THE NEWS IS ABOUT THE MIDDLE AND THE UPPER CLASS.THE GOVERMENT NEEDS TO ADDRESS
THE TOO.THEY ARE THE ONES WHO DO MOST OF THE LIVING AND DRYING, PAYING OF TAXES IN THIS COUNTRY WE LIVE IN
I HOPE DONT AFFEND ANYONE BUT THAT IS LIVING TRUTH.
THEY SHOULD DO IT.IF OUR PRESIDENT SEES THIS I PRAY
HE WILL SEE THE WILL TO HELP.
While I realize that most segments of the population are caught in the financial problems prevalent today, it seems to me that our most vunerable population is bearing the worst of the burden–namely, seniors on social security and those on va pensions.
I have seen approval for continuning tax cuts, plans for new road construction, aid to other countries and many other needed expenses but for the seniors and those on va pensions, there seems to be no relief.
Actually, it is rather short sighted to me for these people (yes, I can be counted among the seniors and va people) due to the necessities of daily life, quickly pump the money back into the financial mainstream.
We must buy groceries, pay mortgages, purchase medicine and wonder how badly our Medicare benefits are being cut.
Remember ladies and gentlemen in Congress, the lessons from this election–the next election is not that far away and one thing we do know how to do is vote.
I hope there is at least one person in a position of power in Congress who will understand that we need relief–
With our prayers for a better tomorrow–
this is a lot bs everybody getting rasies –but seniors,
this is the most crooked grovenment ever, i have work over
for 45 years of my life and paid into social security and we can,t get a cola increase, i want my money with interest
THE POOR IN THIS RARELY MENTION,THEY
THEY THE ONES THAT DO MOST OF THE LIVING AND DYING AND PAYING LARGE AMOUNTS TAXES IN THE UNITED STATES,AND OVERSEAS.THEY SUFFER THE
MOST.THEY SHOULD GET COST OF LIVING INCREACE IN CHECKS ,ANYONE WHO,S
ON SOCICAL SECURITY SHOULD NO LESS
Interesting Thoughts, Ever want to know how social security tax rates have changed over the years? We can start by reviewing how money comes into the social security system.
Keep up the posts!
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